Populär, aber wirkungslos

Heute morgen während der Arbeitszeit in der Frühstückspause schlenderte ich über den Luisenplatz, wobei mir die Stände von ver.di und dem Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbund ins Auge fielen. Diese machten Werbung für ihre Kampagne "Arm trotz Arbeit" . Inhaltlich fordern die Gewerkschaften einen (gesetzlichen) Mindestlohn in Höhe von 7,50 Euro pro Stunde. Das sieht auch Andrea Ypsilanti so und hat daher eine Unterschriftenkampagne für einen gesetzlichen Mindestlohn gestartet. Und Olaf Scholz, seines Zeichen seit einigen Wochen Arbeitsminister, ist ebenfalls Feuer und Flamme und will einen flächendeckenden Mindestlohn für alle Branchen einführen.

Mal abgesehen davon, dass sich die Gewerkschaften, indem sie einen gesetzlichen Mindestlohn fordern, selbst ein Armutszeugnis ausstellen, denn ureigenes Ziel jeder Arbeitnehmerkoalition ist das Aushandeln von Tarifverträgen mit den Arbeitgeber(verbände)n, wagt sich der ein oder andere auch juristisch auf unwegsames Gelände. Denn man sollte zumindest darüber nachdenken, dass die durch die Tarifautonomie (und somit Artikel 9 Grundgesetz) gewährleisteten Rechte durch die Tarifvertragsparteien und eben nicht durch den Staat via Mindestlohn wahrgenommen werden. Ausnahme hierzu sind lediglich durch die Möglichkeiten der im Tarifvertragsgesetz normierten Allgemeinverbindlichkeitserklärung beziehungsweise des Arbeitnehmerentsendegesetzes vorgesehen - und diese sind bewusst an hohe Hürden geknüpft.

Jetzt soll der Jurist aber mal schweigen und den Ökonomen zu Wort kommen lassen. Beispielsweise den Mannheimer Hochschullehrer Axel Börsch-Supan. Der hat nämlich einen lesenswerten Aufsatz in der FAZ verfasst ("Die Heuchelei mit den Mindestlöhnen"), welchen ich aus urheberrechtlichen Gründen leider nicht verlinken kann und der sich mit den Argumenten der Mindestlohn-Befürworter eingehend auseinandersetzt.

Börsch-Supan kommt letztendlich zu dem Schluss, dass der Mindestlohn, wie er momentan gefordert wird (also 7,50 Euro), einseitig die Insider des Arbeitsmarktes auf Kosten der Outsider schützt und damit gerade denjenigen das Leben schwerer macht, die besonders schutzbedürftig sind. Der Mindestlohn sei auch nicht nötig, um Armut zu bekämpfen. Denn in Deutschland sei ein Mindesteinkommen durch die Sozialhilfe gewährleistet. Die Höhe der Sozialhilfe sei wiederum an den Ausgaben orientiert, die ein Haushalt für eine menschenwürdige Existenz haben sollte. Wenn man der Ansicht sei, die Höhe der Sozialhilfe sei zu niedrig, dann müsse man hier ansetzen.
Auch einer weiteren Mär widmet sich der Autor: So sei der EU-Vergleich nicht brauchbar, denn Länder wie Dänemark, Schweden oder auch Österreich fallen nicht durch eine hohe Armut auf; dort kennt man aber auch keinen Mindestlohn. Eben weil es dort - wie in Deutschland - ein Mindesteinkommen gibt. Der Vergleich mit Großbritannien, den USA oder auch den Niederlande hinkt demgegenüber gewaltig, weil dort - wegen der geringeren Höhe des Mindestlohns und Ausnahmeregelungen, zum Beispiel für jugendliche Arbeitnehmer - nur 1,2 bis 2,1% der Arbeitnehmer von dem Mindestlohn profitieren, hierzulandes wären es aber 8,2%. Am Ehesten sei die deutsche Situation noch mit Frankreich zu vergleichen. Hier zeige aber die Statistik, dass die Jugendarbeitslosigkeit in Frankreich im letzten Jahrzehnt immer dann am Höchsten war, wenn der Mindestlohn am Üppigsten ausfiel. Das seien eindeutige "Warnsignale" für Deutschland, so Professor Börsch-Supan.

Es sei somit möglicherweise populär für Mindestlöhne zu werben. Allein: den sozial Schwachen werde damit nicht geholfen und auch nicht den gering Qualifizierten, deren Arbeitsplätze leicht ersetzbar seien, sondern den Insidern, die ohnehin "abgeschirmte Arbeitsplätze" hätten.

Meines Erachtens eine durchaus schlüssig dargelegte Untersuchung aus fachlich berufenem Munde.

Was mich im Übrigen ebenfalls noch interessieren würde: Aufgrund welcher Gesetzeskompetenz will Frau Ypsilanti auf Länderebene den Mindestlohn einführen? Artikel 74 Absatz 1 Nummern 1 und 12 Grundgesetz kommen wohl offenkundig wegen Artikel 72 Absatz 1 Grundgesetz nicht in Betracht.



/// gehört wird: JAMIE T, If You Got The Money ///
Lili (Gast) - 23. Jan, 18:00

Kann die Lösung wirklich Arbeitslohn + aufstockender Sozialhilfeleistung sein ?

Sie schreiben: "....Denn in Deutschland sei ein Mindesteinkommen durch die Sozialhilfe gewährleistet....."

Ist das nicht Subvention von Unternehmen durch die Hintertür ? Das Unternehmen bezahlt Arbeitnehmer schlecht, denn letztlich wird der Staat schon dafür sorgen mittels Sozialhilfe, dass sie ihr Auskommen haben ?

Problematisch, auch wenn die Mindestlohn-Diskussion sicher ihre Tücken hat.

Jeff (Gast) - 24. Jan, 00:17

Diese Lösung habe ich nicht propagiert!
msa - 23. Jan, 21:25

Grundeinkommen statt Mindestlohn

Das der Mindestlohn eine derzeit populäre Wahlkampfansage der SPD ist, schein allgemein bekannt zu sein. Die SPD braucht halt einen Rettungsanker um sich gegen die Linken und die Rechten (sorry Mitte) zu behaupten. Und da man sich (noch) nicht traut, die Debatte um ein Grundeinkommen offen zu führen bleibt kaum was anderes über als per Mindestlohn die "Neiddebatte" zu führen. Denn die bösen Arbeitgeber sind schließlich dafür verantwortlich, dass die armen Arbeiter unterhalb des Existenzminimums bezahlt werden.
Den Gewerkschaften sind in den letzten (fetten) Jahren (Jahrzehnten) die Mitglieder weggelaufen. "Die" tun dann natürlich nur noch was für ihre Mitglieder, das mögen beispielsweise die sein, die von einem Mindestlohn profitieren. Warum sollten Gewerkschaften (Arbeitnehmervertreter) auch für Nicht-Arbeitnehmer einstehen?
Erstaunlich ist, dass jede demokratische bundesweit agierende Partei in Deutschland, außer der der SPD eine Art Grundeinkommen oder Bürgergeld im Programm hat. Mal versteckt, mal offen diskutiert. Aber nur wenige trauen sich damit an die Öffentlichkeit, denn auch hier steckt Potenzial für eine Neiddebatte. Problem dabei: Der Neid trifft dann die mit geringem oder keinem Arbeitseinkommen und dieser Gefahr setzt sich keine Partei aus.
Arbeitsleistung wird nach Angebot bezahlt. Subventionen jeglicher Art oder Vorschriften über Lohnhöhen hebeln den Markt aus. Auch Tarifliche Löhne könnte man oberflächlich als Marktbehinderung begreifen. Sie sind aber nur das Resultat für Preisverhandlungen zwischen Arbeitgeber und Arbeitnehmer.
Ein staatliches Grundeinkommen für jeden, zum Beispiel in der Höhe der Existenzsicherung würde den Verhandlungsspielraum der Arbeitskraftanbieter steigern und die Preise für geleistete Arbeit können sich freier, Marktgerechter entwickeln.
Manfred

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A aus HD (Gast) - 24. Jan, 23:37

Sehr...

gut auf den Punkt gebracht, mein Herr.
Immer wieder eine Augenweide von einem Juristen auch ökonomisches Verständnis erkennen zu können.

Gehab Dich wohl!

Achtundneunzig - 25. Jan, 11:53

@A:

Vielen Dank.

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